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终身追责:将国企决策权关进制度的笼子

2017-2-28
2016-09-11
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2BaxhCfdDVZTZ5QxfgEXgboREbmdKANZHpwn4oY2X8Kh21WbY4/2RPyUGJBxVz9NFkY3oWvB7+uvMPDnZhdRCyLotXbywLSWUJxghRVbjolsyEFTRS6igXp4dIKXkqD6k/j1IpPq5tQGp+GyxDLTLlMSNUzkpnQqgOHSqbyA9NhkenSYhLvYXjXPIi9bdf3N4b0rACzks+b4/UjKg0kpHmqSDDPU0cTEkoOjUa/HEyTdncx+1tWze+Ssu6sA5uaH2JTeSDudQ/T+FlQtXh75AORfFZnFBAJO2w9H5tBNh0GqWskSKcXYX+Jq0PXbl3lilv8QU70kXBzi3GDvylX0cZbKj5Ob70GQrlEdpbWUSQDfJQEocaxIvky3MOB3tumYnnVi5QMZttc0nuoeGIhy78nM0gILHz6nzbelsN7G6IIo67Me6Jc/dbcAXcRC6Aej3dVIWyeMkAs4HtKjWiBTfnT/Q/PMp2Ax/2Snv8kavZIX2qHlTMSs4FcJ85CBjO1gh06nprE8j5AABg/S/lBiK1TdoIEKFhehKZ0V7ihSmgTPA0Vnxq0qPqvzUUKibc9fvOQQ+BsW5/gDyqusc4PHS6s9WLbJfU5a3pOAAv+nHOYujITGAvyE99iZoo/kWefobfflCJTkDGKDfqF4FqJBr5d4L2gFdSbH+nTagPIvLsv/8u6ttRYezYNmOkUqCY2NXByHSrsbevr2XHiP9WJVebTIaAB8UDFUxbCSlFwLAOG5rtXTzurgXKT9Y/FquUPJBP+b8yX8D90M19rwOJ2MJLUNQWs0/MbrP8TeyBpPN4D7nZuLWFQ6/wwcXxK19MPE4CZ7lXXMKaOEpH5UoKnnLx5Pfcsu6kKM9iz+D/Y0udbQI6xC3LWDE9Xs0484Wxm24JNhdD0nVzx0791cQDGriRD4uAMyBe7fPULqD3f7NkItgHKjQ2bVLYpv8IIHQIDEuK9wp4rbQP/rTu2NizXeXZwTS40+oUOAYOdypzx/DkFFYHSc61UDvJOPtlImyAsiRSD6yO19jmwSmEb/UKaGNtnxzsRbdBfKrskkEtfDdNLwWC77bgsS7Myvhk9KIqfTlhLk5VNj4R8ezlm9NMsDlP9+0aEwbK8fe0zamklnBFfOYGqyghUf3yXov0CCHWsAN8hEB/0auAERwhkPSClgO2SCs899g+QbrHg/9Ef4IhXBshxzKtOTlky9ZnXUgB2jOkeqcv+bc+YRDcxW6X0u++gr4xyh8nOSNCYGrZR2Fld4GC9SAJRAIwG9hK1j/IRceUumtJAoeQ6bnoNYjQsYtpESHzopTpDf1D9m8JBJ3eLWn3ZSrUbjXn/o7ADbeM0BzvWQa+Ow3JLmMLe+FOpT2RVu938+8V/cCPLgEXX/BE4Kpa12ggd5rij5bEPJKVO/6Jfmldo4FwDC6E3Gz070xU/vfLhAWCZKbeg87YzdR9FCfxsYTbwniJmD6/r8ijqtjlzZrRLjzKVsohG5nSgDWR6c5+5xwm9mn1AiwelGm0UZJdViB2rr4iCb8nsCslwSHs6B71fJzF/cd8vjN7rpSEnpHLaJ7f1xl/lmE579qYWLG7aaamKinSzNM5crH194848B/bLtwE5HXfNiqTNjL3jVYZ/BuPly4NgzyUZVvVPz5was5UOL5+h3F4yNaem0scVwd2oJCzTumVl3S02N2+j3EyR2CXVwIRFv7iFJvIYK5JBMivJ40cieNvl2udKcKh/eBw4KOcAhKtuzeuQiqYKMEUL0SAuHKf4cRXyocp3/NsHllSiJ0GBDzofhFtvmSWI82TlnT2OMcXFL++dIbyMUVLuPLoae3znxuNR85PF6qq0sV/BpG1WTZgksUqX5Ns2YGysB1WPCEMRF/hBkWkW+L+hEwAjEbemUDft2sitx87Qk+ptaT3firTjbQMYK5tuNNNqffOTppqEvBaTrJtmjkJ08zNBkYo+aA62S69yzxTUTZDsRzT0eYzVLPDGl6NQ0ikuqoEAEb8gnJ9Zqqs3P5AGqjPt0ER9i53Sgd5o5apY971O89vxZ6yYH0zpzBtbw52YXUQsi6MH5lS3b83bvpKmsnMtGvpNrQP/LbUcsHD7zvbSeE8M2tHyP4l/N2m7A7og36uT/EJssgYC0nX+x3M6LsL5VFfeQr9+iFk5dKfm6rAHn/B6MVC1eHvkA5F8VmcUEAk7bD0fm0E2HQapa0IaTyXFxnUzL25IiRvdY8KLJs3UXQVKq27Ml/x0MNNDaepVAkjeveYnbDRQsw81EmHLcRG90FgPKCee8HllDR/Ue+fmcjY4uL1XjE80et7nNz71XRqHcJhnW28qlxW4vUbwnwy1UajNyrFo9x3cTXMH5lS3b83bvpKmsnMtGvpMC+lu/s/EzgT9VnkZc9pWK2qwGcDbpPC7ZrRLjzKVsovldchEVgvCmDuZ13OubQLIVnmtzyrOp0gMhhVzQkXoHLQJ3JBifk26hr/3wiJ36Iw==

国企将实行重大决策终身追责制,国企投资决策有了硬约束。近日,国务院办公厅发布《关于建立国有企业违规经营投资责任追究制度的意见》(以下简称《意见》),在国企发展历程中第一次提出“实行重大决策终身责任追究制度”。
    毋庸置疑,在国企发展历程中首次提出的“实行重大决策终身责任追究制度”,“终身”二字最为引人注目,“终身”二字彰显了监督决心和震慑力量。这意味着,国企负责人无论是否离开企业,都要对所做的重大投资决策承担责任。意味着国企负责人决策时就得掂量责任的问题,无论是否离开企业,都无法推卸应负的责任,不能把亏损包袱甩给国家,抛向社会。
    坦率地讲,长期以来国企决策的约束失之于宽,存在权责不对等状况,国企投资出现巨亏,高管却可全身而退。国家审计署2014年发布的11家央企的审计公告显示,上百亿元投资亏损中,不少看上去十分“任性”,有的企业借给民企20亿元买矿、次年再花40亿元高价回购。近几年,国企走出去步伐加快,大手笔“买买买”,然而不少项目转眼却成了亏损黑洞,几十亿甚至上百亿元投资打了水漂。还有一些国企,只关心负责人任期内的营收数字好不好看,不切实际追求规模,加剧产能过剩,最后滋生一批僵尸企业。亏损之后,许多决策者只要换家企业、换个岗位就可卸责,有些甚至留在原有岗位继续发号施令。正是基于上述国企决策失范,违规经营、盲目投资、暗箱操作、转移资产等问题频发的严峻现状,实行重大决策终身责任追究制度,强化国企决策的规范性势在必行。
    实行重大决策终身责任追究制,有望给国有资产加上一把“保险锁”,解决国企投资决策短期化问题,防止国资流失。投资决策不当带来的亏损,往往会导致国有资产流失。保障国有资产安全,是新一轮国企改革的前提和底线。此次明确建立投资决策的终身追责制度,更是把约束的目标直接对准了投资决策者这一责任主体,无疑给国有资产加上一把“保险锁”。
    实行重大决策终身责任追究制,有望遏制国企的短视行为,倒逼国企着眼长期的可持续发展。目前,央企负责人任期经营业绩考核以3年为一个考核期。企业在运行中,势必会考虑考核周期的业绩表现。某些短期投资收益抢眼,长期却成了亏损黑洞,最后“高管犯错、国家买单;前任犯错、后任收拾”。终身追责制度将在这方面发挥强有力的约束作用。
    将国企决策权关进制度的笼子,就应进一步明确需要追责的具体情形。
    《关于建立国有企业违规经营投资责任追究制度的意见》明确了9个方面54种需要追责的情形。9个方面包括:集团管控、购销管理、工程承包建设、转让产权及上市新时代赌城股权和资产、固定资产投资、投资并购、改组改制、资金管理、风险管理等。国企高管因违规、未履行或未正确履行职责而造成国有资产损失的,有可能面临终身不得担任高管的追责,还有可能被扣减和追索绩效年薪或任期激励收入。54种追责情形就是54个不能碰的“雷区”,相当于给国企高管开了一个颇为详尽的负面清单。
    将国企决策权关进制度的笼子,就应动真格将问责进行到底,彰显“终身追责”的威慑性,让违规者付出应有的代价。重大决策终身责任追究制度贵在“终身”二字,这意味着,国企负责人无论是否离开企业,都要对所做的重大投资决策承担责任。《意见》指出,国有企业违规经营投资,根据资产损失程度、问题性质等,对相关责任人进行问责。处理方式包括:组织处理,批评教育、责令书面检查、通报批评、诫勉、停职、调离工作岗位、降职、改任非领导职务、责令辞职、免职等;扣减薪酬,扣减和追索绩效年薪或任期激励收入、终止或收回中长期激励收益、取消参加中长期激励资格等;禁入限制,五年内直至终身不得担任国有企业董事、监事、高级管理人员;纪律处分,由相应的纪检监察机关依法依规查处;移送司法机关处理,依据国家有关法律规定,移送司法机关依法查处。
    需要指出的是,终身追责制度重点针对的是违规行为,而不是要限制企业正常的经营投资行为。不能片面认为,强化约束就是束缚住了企业活力。当然,追责的一些细则、国有资产流失的标准等,还需进一步明确。既要防止一些人拿防流失当借口而懒改革,也要避免随意扣国资流失的帽子。
    在制度的约束下规范发展,国企才能真正做强做优做大。期待国企重大决策终身责任追究制度,倒逼新一轮国企改革步入制度化规范化的正轨,让国企在激励中奋发前行,在约束下规范发展。
    本文摘自:《经济参考报》

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