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厉以宁:民企和国企合作要有信心

2017-2-28
2014-03-27
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

这段时间,总有民营企业家向北京大学教授、北京大学光华管理学院名誉院长厉以宁表达自己心里的不踏实,他们相信十八届三中全会的《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》,但是,“如果国有企业还是现在这个样子,那我们怎么跟他合作?合作会不会把自己弄丢了、卖了?”

在近日全国工商联举行的“中国民营经济大家谈”上,厉以宁专门谈了和国企合作要有“信心”。他说,国有企业改革正在深化,不要用一成不变的眼光看待长期存在的国有企业。

目前,国有企业改革大体上分为两类,一是国有资本体制的改革,重在投资的资金进进出出,通过资源配置把国有资本用在最有效的地方;二是要让企业真正成为独立的企业,“所有制”可能各种成分都有,但建立现代企业制度,健全法人治理结构,破除某些行业的垄断是不能变的。

在这种趋势下,他认为民营企业一定要跟上世界两大趋势,即工业化和信息化的融合以及制造业和服务业的融合。

首先应当提高资源配置效率。过去经济学中一直谈生产配置效率,但现在更重视资源配置效率。假设投入是既定的,A方配置资源产生A效应,用B方来配置资源可能会产生B+1效益,这就是投入总量不变,配置资源之后产生的新效率。这使得经济学也产生变化,开始重视产权重组、产群交易平台、资本市场的重要性,因为资本市场是资源配置效率最佳平台。

他着重提到了过去企业对非生产人员的误解。长期以来,企业把从事融资、筹资、人事组织、宣传、行政管理工作,这些不在生产第一线的人员都看成非生产人员。但是,资源配置效率出来以后就变了,这些人都在提高资源配置效率。例如,“没有融资、筹资人员,你能利用好资本市场吗?能有产权交易的场所吗?不会有的。” 厉以宁认为民营企业有了这样的理念以后会有转变。

同样,分配方式也在变化。从前的分配方式是认为创造出的财富主要归功于物资投入者,是物资资本的投入者和人力资本的投入者合作创造了财富,而人力资本的投入者只能从工资成本中取得工资报酬不合理。厉以宁认为,共享利润,产权激励、员工持股,所有这些是人力资本应该成为利润一部分的分享者,这就能调动员工的积极性。

厉以宁说:“苹果不是乔布斯他个人才能的结果,而是苹果有好的制度,其中包含着产权激励制度,在产权激励制度下有针对上万研究人员的机制,把这么庞大的队伍调动起来。这是每一位企业家都要重视的。”

此外,厉以宁认为民营企业家一定要有产权清晰、产权维护的意识。民营企业家在当初中国的夹缝生存环境中,因产权不清晰产生了很多问题,现在要保护产权的前提是产权清晰。民营企业家要尽早把产权清晰,将来才会无后顾之忧,不然将来迟早有一天会带来问题。

(本文章摘自324日《中国青年报》)

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