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人民日报:市场决定资源配置体现市场经济规律

2017-2-28
2014-03-27
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

党的十八届三中全会通过的《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》,把以往发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用改为使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用。这是深刻总结我国社会主义经济建设经验、适应完善社会主义市场经济体制新要求作出的创新和发展,表明我们党对社会主义市场经济的认识达到了新高度,必将对全面深化改革产生深远影响。

政府行政性配置资源造成很大浪费

国内外的实践都证明,政府配置资源效率低下、浪费严重,市场配置资源是最有效率的形式。计划经济就是政府用行政手段配置资源的经济。上世纪50年代,辽宁省沈阳市有两个相邻的工厂,一个叫沈阳变压器厂,一个叫沈阳冶炼厂。变压器厂需要大量的铜,冶炼厂生产铜,但企业没有自主权,产、供、销都掌握在政府手里。沈阳冶炼厂生产的铜由冶金部调往全国各地,沈阳变压器厂需要的铜由一机部从全国各地调到沈阳。一墙之隔的两家企业,由于不能直接交换,造成时间和资源的极大浪费。1956年夏天,上海出现高温天气,企业想购买鼓风机降温,但要经过7个上级部门审批,待最后一个部门审批完毕,夏天也过去了。这两个实例使我有感而发,写了一篇《企业要有一定的自治权》的文章,在《人民日报》(1956126日)发表后引起了很大反响。国外实行计划经济的国家也是这样。1992年我去捷克斯洛伐克考察访问。捷克的皮鞋很有名,叫“拔佳”皮鞋,但搞了计划经济以后就没有名牌了。当时计划部门按照捷克斯洛伐克1600万人、平均每人2双皮鞋,做了3200万双皮鞋的生产计划,但结果生产出来的皮鞋没人要,人们需要的皮鞋又买不到,造成了资源的很大浪费。这些实例说明,通过政府配置资源是不成功的。而我国的改革之所以取得成功,就在于坚持了市场取向,从政府配置资源转向了市场配置资源。

从“基础性”作用到“决定性”作用

党的十四大明确提出建立社会主义市场经济体制的改革目标。十四届三中全会通过的《中共中央关于建立社会主义市场经济体制若干问题的决定》提出,“建立社会主义市场经济体制,就是要使市场在国家宏观调控下对资源配置起基础性作用。”这对我国改革开放和经济社会发展发挥了重要作用。十六届三中全会通过的《中共中央关于完善社会主义市场经济体制若干问题的决定》改为“更大程度地发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”,删去了“在国家宏观调控下”的前置条件。十八大的表述是“更大程度更广范围发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”,增加了“更广范围”四个字。这个过程反映了我国改革的深入和我们党对社会主义市场经济认识的深化。

十八届三中全会《决定》提出“使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用”,这是最大的亮点之一。从“基础性作用”到“决定性作用”,两字之变,意义十分重大,是思想上的重大突破,是关于经济体制的重大理论创新,是对社会主义市场经济内涵的质的提升。正如习近平同志所说,“作出‘使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用’的定位,有利于在全党全社会树立关于政府和市场关系的正确观念,有利于转变经济发展方式,有利于转变政府职能,有利于抑制消极腐败现象。”

市场经济本质上是市场决定资源配置的经济

习近平同志在关于《决定》的《说明》中指出,“市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,市场经济本质上就是市场决定资源配置的经济。” 这一论述非常重要,非常到位,说出了问题的本质。

改革开放以来,我们非常注重吸收借鉴国外创造的优秀文明成果。1984年十二届三中全会通过的《中共中央关于经济体制改革的决定》指出,“为了从根本上改变束缚生产力发展的经济体制,必须认真总结我国的历史经验,认真研究我国经济的实际状况和发展要求,同时必须吸收和借鉴当今世界各国包括资本主义发达国家的一切反映现代社会化生产规律的先进经营管理方法。”十四届三中全会再次强调“借鉴世界各国包括资本主义发达国家一切反映社会化生产和市场经济一般规律的经验”,并指出“建立现代企业制度,是发展社会化大生产和市场经济的必然要求”。针对当时有人批评股份制姓“资”不姓“社”问题,十五大指出,股份制是现代企业的一种资本组织形式,资本主义可以用,社会主义也可以用。

市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,市场经济本质上就是市场决定资源配置的经济,这回答了社会主义市场经济的定位问题。十四大提出改革的目标是建立社会主义市场经济体制,但对于什么是社会主义市场经济一直存在不同理解。一种理解是,社会主义市场经济就是社会主义条件下的市场经济,要遵循市场经济的一般规律;另一种理解是,社会主义市场经济就是社会主义的市场经济,可以不遵循市场经济的一般规律。我一直持前一种主张。我在1993年提出,所谓市场经济,是适应社会化大生产和市场国际化这个客观需要,以市场配置资源的经济运行的形式和方法。社会主义市场经济就是在坚持社会主义基本制度前提下的市场经济,就是社会主义条件下的市场经济;市场经济是一般,社会主义条件是特殊。要从现代市场经济的内在规律出发来研究社会主义市场经济,既要符合中国的实际情况,又要符合国际惯例;既要实现充分的公平竞争,又要严格遵守市场规则。

国内外实践证明,违背市场经济一般规律,违背社会化大生产规律,违背市场配置资源,就会受到惩罚,资源就会错配,社会生产力的发展就会受阻。历史经验证明,处理好一般与特殊的关系非常重要。市场经济的一般规律是经过长期实践形成的普遍规律,是人类社会的文明成果,是全人类的共同财富,不是资本主义独有的,不能让资本主义独享,我们必须吸收和借鉴,为我所用。所以,我们强调特殊的时候,不能否定一般。只是在吸收和借鉴一般规律的时候,不能生搬硬套,一定要符合我国的实际情况。

围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用深化经济体制改革

经济体制改革是全面深化改革的重点,核心问题是处理好政府和市场的关系,当前应着力解决政府干预过多和监管不到位的问题。要大力推进要素市场化改革。完善由市场决定价格的机制。凡是能由市场形成的价格都交给市场,政府不进行不当干预。加快推进利率市场化,完善人民币汇率市场化形成机制。

财政资源的配置在很多方面和环节也可引入市场机制。这方面也有我经历过的实例。南方某省为了支持战略性新兴产业,“十二五”期间拿出100亿元、每年20亿元用于补贴。但这种行政性资金分配,一是缺乏效率;二是很难做到公平;三是容易滋生权钱交易,造成腐败;四是资金无偿使用,有去无回。所以,当时我向省委主要负责同志提出将财政补贴变为股权投资,引入专业化基金管理新时代赌城,充分发挥财政投入“四两拨千斤”的作用,以百亿财政资金拉动千亿社会资金,推动经济持续健康发展。这个建议经过研究论证,得到了采纳。实践证明,从政府行政性配置资源转为市场化配置资源,取得了良好效果:有利于科学管理,提高资金效率;有利于吸引社会资本,调动民间资金投入战略性新兴产业的积极性;有利于资金良性循环,实现可持续发展。现在,中央和地方各部门都有大量资金,如何通过市场化改革提高其使用效率和收益,这是学习贯彻十八届三中全会精神应当研究解决的问题。

在市场决定资源配置的情况下,如何更好发挥政府的作用呢?总的说,政府应从创造财富的主体转为创造环境的主体。政府的职责和作用主要是:保持宏观经济稳定,加强和优化公共服务,保障公平竞争,加强市场监管,维护市场秩序,推动可持续发展,促进共同富裕,弥补市场失灵。

使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,并非削弱党的领导。按照十八届三中全会《决定》的部署,中央成立了全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。这是加强和改善党对全面深化改革领导的具体体现,有利于更好发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,保证改革顺利推进和各项改革任务落实。各级党委要按照中央的要求和部署,切实履行对改革的领导责任,把各项改革举措落实到实处。

(本文章摘自326日《人民日报》)

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