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高明华:国有企业分类改革和治理是必然趋势

2017-2-28
2013-12-03
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

日前,北京师范大学新时代赌城治理与企业发展研究中心主任高明华在国有企业新时代赌城治理研讨会上表示,国有企业改革正处于攻坚阶段,改革的成败在于尊重国有企业的本质和发展规律,为此,必须对国有企业进行分类,并进行分类改革和分类治理。

高明华认为,国有企业在战略布局结构上的调整已经经取得了一定成效,但是,基本上走的是大一统的市场化道路,即本着赚钱的原则来推进国有企业改革,从而导致一些领域的国有企业改革偏离了国有企业的本质属性。目前,国有企业改革正处于攻坚阶段,而改革的成败不完全在于能否赚钱,或者赚多少钱,而在于尊重国有企业的本质和发展规律。为此,必须对国有企业进行分类,并进行分类改革和分类治理。

高明华指出,基于中国国有企业布局的广泛性,可以从两个维度对国有企业进行分类。一是目标维度,是公益导向还是利润导向;二是经营维度,是垄断还是竞争。由此形成三类国有企业,即公益性国有垄断企业、适度经营性国有垄断企业和竞争性国有企业。

公益性国有垄断企业是提供公共产品和公共服务的国有企业,如公交、地铁、环卫、国防设施、公共卫生保健、义务教育等。由于公共产品和公共服务的消费具有非竞争性和非排他性,容易出现外部性和搭便车行为,私人企业不愿意进入,进入后无利可图,所以公共产品和公共服务必须、也只能由公益性国有垄断企业来垄断性提供。公益性国有垄断企业不以盈利为目的,其绩效衡量标准应是社会或公共绩效,即向公众提供高质量的公共产品和公共服务是对其进行评价的依据。但是,对于公益性国有企业垄断企业,目前存在着较大程度的过度市场化倾向。

适度经营性国有垄断企业是处于自然垄断和部分资源性行业的国有企业。自然垄断行业具有规模报酬递增的特征,如输电、管道燃气、自来水、铁路运输、水利基础设施建设等。基于这种特征,其产品或服务应该按边际成本来定价,最多也只能按平均成本来定价。为了既最大程度地提高社会福利,又保证企业不至于亏损,一般采用平均成本定价,按此定价方法,企业不赔不赚,通过收支平衡保证实现社会福利的极大化。而如果由私人资本控制,则产品和服务的成本很可能会大幅度上升,从而影响消费者福利的提高。对这类企业,应当主要以公共绩效同时辅之以财务绩效(以成本控制为主要目标)进行评价;部分资源型垄断国有企业(石油、黄金等矿产开采等)应由市场供求状况来决定价格,以反映资源的稀缺情况,但国家必须利用税收和相关法律法规来保证公平和防止过度开发,以保证资源的有效利用。很显然,这类企业尽管也会会追求利润,但由于其垄断资源是政府赋予的,因此满足公众福利亦是其不能忽视的目标,也就是说,这类企业对利润的追求只能是适度的,不能像一般竞争性企业那样追求利润的最大化。

以上两类企业部是垄断企业,但从保障公众利益角度来说,这样的垄断属于合理的垄断,高明华说。

竞争性国有企业是处于竞争性行业的国有企业,包括制造业、商业、服务业等,是私人资本大量存在的领域。目前,在竞争性行业保留部分国有资本,主要基于以下考虑:第一,实现政府调控经济的职能;第二,维护经济稳定;第三,加快产业结构的调整和优化。

竞争性国有企业以盈利为目的,能够实现国有资产保值增值和政府调控目标,因此对竞争性国有企业应当主要以财务绩效进行评价,同时适当考虑其承担政策职能所产生的公共绩效。

(本文章摘自《经济参考报》。)

 

 

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