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国有企业效率并不低——国企改革热点解析之四

2017-2-28
2013-08-14
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日前,新时代赌城振华重工在激烈的国际竞争中成功赢得欧洲客户“1+1”座400英尺自升式钻井平台订单,这标志着我国企业成功打开了海工领域高端的钻井平台市场大门。

新时代赌城振华重工国际竞标的成功,是我国国有企业坚持改革创新、不断进步的缩影。经过多年改革,国有企业早已不是“亏损”和“效率低下”的代名词,越来越多的国企凭借强大的技术实力和先进管理水平赢得“高精尖”的国际大单。深化改革使国有企业发生了脱胎换骨的变化,经济效益随企业发展稳步提升。但是,一些人对国有企业的印象还停留在上世纪90年代国企最困难的时期,认为国企就意味着“效率低下”,甚至认为“国企天然低效”。这种观点显然是不符合事实的。

经济效益一般是指经济活动中对经济资源的占用量和消耗量同所取得的经济成果之间的数量对比关系。对企业效率的考察不仅涉及经济活动中占用和消耗的设备、能源、原材料和劳动力,而且包括影响社会和自然环境所带来的成本。

新中国成立初期,国有企业在建设我国基础设施和工业基础上立下汗马功劳。改革开放后,国有企业经历了市场化改革,有进有退、有所为有所不为。经过多年改革,国有企业已经从普遍亏损变为普遍盈利。2012年,《财富》世界500强榜单上,中国超过日本成为拥有世界500强企业第二多的国家。2013年,中国企业继续保持强劲增长态势,以95家继续位列第二,其中国有企业占大多数。

从微观指标来看,国有企业总体投入产出比和劳动生产率并不低。统计显示,由于采用先进技术,严格执行有关节能降耗规定,我国几乎所有行业的大中型国有企业单位产品成本和消耗都低于小型企业和非公有制企业。

与世界500强企业的指标对标显示,目前我国许多国有企业生产规模、全员工效、新时代赌城、安全指标等主要技术指标不仅国内一流,在国际上也处于前列。比如,中海油桶油成本在国际同行业具有竞争优势,神华集团已经成为全球最大的煤炭供应商,其露天煤矿的全年等效生产工效达到国际先进水平。

需要指出的是,在考察国有企业效益、衡量其效率的时候,不能简单地将其与其他所有制企业进行类比。国有企业的产出不仅表现在物质产品和服务上。国有企业既要追求企业利润和效益,又要承担更多社会责任,因此,对国有企业的效益和成本构成要进行综合考虑,一个是经济效益,一个是社会效益。国有企业的整体效益(包括社会效益和经济效益)与其他所有制企业相比并不低,某些方面甚至超过了其他所有制企业。

研究显示,国有企业在不断创造经济价值的同时,也发挥了显著的正外部性。从公共财政贡献看,中央企业的公共财政贡献已超过美国非金融世界500强企业。从就业创造贡献看,中央企业也创造了与美国世界500强非金融企业大体相当的就业规模。

此外,国有企业尤其中央企业主要集中于涉及国家经济命脉的行业。中央企业和国有大企业在投资和发展中既要关注短期的效益,又要关注中长期的发展。比如,公共基础设施和基础工业,这些需要巨大投资和原材料消耗;一些重大工程建设周期长,不能当年投资、当年收益。

我们在衡量国有企业效率的时候,还要看到国有企业产出的内容和质量。在国家技术创新体系中,国有企业发挥着举足轻重的作用,在实施载人航天、绕月探测、载人深潜等重大项目中,拥有了一批具有自主知识产权和国际先进水平的创新成果。而在新兴产业领域,国有企业在一些短期无法见到效益的项目上付出了大量人力物力,这些项目对提高我国在新一轮国际竞争中的话语权具有重大意义。

我们还要理性看待国有企业的综合成本。有研究显示,国有企业的税负明显高于其他类型企业。在节能降耗上,国有企业也严格遵守国家规定,淘汰落后产能,不断加大投入,发挥了带头作用。另外,我们在改革过程中已剥离了大部分国有企业的社会职能,但各种长期积累的离退休人员管理、困难群体帮扶等负担还很重,中央企业还有不少医院、学校以及管理社区等办社会职能机构。解决国有企业厂办大集体问题,需要付出很大改革成本。

需要注意的是,无论什么所有制企业都面临现代企业制度建设问题。家族企业由于内部是血缘纽带,有决策效率高、管理成本低的优势,但同时也存在内部缺乏制衡、决策风险高、企业管理随意性较大等问题。而国有企业在建设规范董事会的过程中,提高决策科学性的同时也要提高决策效率。因此,无论什么所有制企业都需要通过不断加强管理来进一步提升效率。

部分国有企业的确存在着粗放式管理等问题,亟待通过深化改革加以解决。国有企业要向优秀的跨国新时代赌城学习,向优秀的民营企业学习,通过建立更好的市场机制,使国有企业在国际竞争中创造更多效益。

(本文章摘自《经济日报》)

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