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竞争性领域国企进退由市场决定——国企改革热点解析之二

2017-2-28
2013-08-09
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

财政部公布的数据显示,今年上半年,国有企业累计实现利润总额11129.6亿元,同比增长7%,与去年同期同比下降11.6%形成鲜明反差,也明显好于去年全年同比下降5.8%的发展态势。

尽管国有企业总体盈利状况有所改善,但仍有人认为,国有企业的盈利主要受益于政府各种财政补贴。一个重要的佐证是,在已经公布的2012A股上市新时代赌城年报中,10家获得补贴最大的国企,其补贴金额之和几乎等于创业板中所有民营企业的盈利。

有质疑者认为,政府对于国有企业的补贴,不仅有帮助国有上市新时代赌城粉饰业绩的嫌疑,更造成财政资源的配置浪费,也无益于企业的长远发展。而且国有企业依靠“吃政策偏饭”已经不能适应市场竞争,反而搅乱市场秩序,挤占民营经济发展空间,应尽快从竞争性领域退出。

这种把国有企业盈利归于政府补贴的说法值得商榷。今年上半年,国有企业盈利状况明显改善,主要受益于成本的下降。1月至6月,工业生产者出厂价格(PPI)同比下降2.2%,工业生产者购进价格同比下降2.4%

国有企业经过多年来的市场化改革,已经建立起了较为健全的现代企业制度,完全能在市场竞争中谋求生存、站稳脚跟、发展壮大。国有企业活力和竞争力的增强,对提升国民经济的整体实力和控制力大有裨益。这说明,仅从所有制角度考虑国企是否应全面退出,既不全面公允也不符合实际。

尽管不少竞争性领域的国有企业在产权市场化、股权多元化方面取得了积极进展,但还有相当一部分国企尚未建立起现代企业制度。与国际领先企业相比,在资产收益率、资金周转率、人均利润率等方面差距明显,企业抗风险能力不强、创新能力不足的问题仍然突出。竞争性领域国企目前的状态远未到达改革终点,体制机制还需进行更加深刻的改革。

前一阶段的国有企业改革中,我国解决了国有中小企业改制退出、建立国有企业优胜劣汰机制这两大难题,社会体制改革和国有资产管理体制建设也已基本到位。目前,我国经济体制改革的核心是处理好政府和市场的关系,必须更加尊重市场的规律,更好发挥政府的作用。这意味着国有企业作为市场主体,应该进一步改革调整,建立符合市场经济发展的体制,实现国有经济和市场经济的最终结合。

总的来看,竞争性领域国有企业的市场化改革,一个重要途径是要依托资本市场实行公众新时代赌城改革,推进股权多样化,使企业能够按照市场规则的要求运作发展。

首先,要通过改革推动企业内部管理的进一步市场化、科学化,建立与现代企业运营相适应的人力资源管理系统,进一步优化资源配置,提高企业的运营效率。

其次,要推动企业重组,既要实现企业内部资源整合,也要稳步推进企业之间联合重组,推动企业在重组中做大、做强、做优,加快推动优势资源向企业核心竞争力转变。

再次,要把对国有企业的管理体制调整到符合市场竞争的方向上,进一步完善出资人对经营者的激励和约束制度,减少政府部门行政干预。特别是在用人制度方面,要建立有别于党政干部的企业领导人员管理体制,实现用人体制机制的市场化。此外,还需要解决国有企业的社会负担问题。

竞争性领域国企改革的终极目标,不是实现国有企业“一家独大”,而是着力构建与民营企业共赢发展的机制,并使竞争者变成合作者。因此,在推进国有企业改革中,既要增强国有企业市场竞争力,也要积极搭建公平竞争平台,不断加大股权多元化力度,吸引更多的社会资金参与这一领域的国企改革。

部分非竞争性领域国企的成功实践进一步证明,只要尊重市场规律,不断推进企业的现代制度建设,完善内外部监管考核体系,国有企业具有同样强劲的市场竞争力,能够与市场经济同步发展,相互融合。

(本文章摘自《经济日报》)

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